Corominas-Diccionario-Etimologico. Uploaded by Download as PDF or read online from Scribd. Flag for Angenot - El Discurso Social - Cap 1 al ciepredengunsee.ml Diccionario Critico Etimologico Castellano C F Corominas Joan PDF. Uploaded by More From Milagros Requena. tigre ciepredengunsee.ml Uploaded by. Milagros Requena. COROMINAS. Diccionario Etimologico. Tania Valdovinos. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. You can download the paper by clicking the.
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Breve diccionario etimológico de la lengua castellana. by: Joan Corominas. Publication date: muy rev. y mejorada. External-identifier: urn:acs6: brevediccionario00colo:pdfafbeef Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico is a discursive etymological dictionary of Spanish compiled by Joan Corominas (also spelled Coromines) . Create a book · Download as PDF · Download as PDF · Printable version. The Diccionario crítico etimológico de la lengua castellana is a discursive, four- volume etymological dictionary of Spanish compiled by the Catalan philologist Joan Corominas (), . Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.
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The study of loanwords provides valuable data for studying language change Backus in Zenner and Christiansen , Layers of loanwords in a language such as the bulk of loanwords from Old Norse and French in English tell us about the past contacts between speakers of the donor and recipient languages, and the kind of words that were borrowed inform us about the nature of the contact Bynon , Our Study Our present study focuses specifically on written text.
The reasons why we are focusing on written language are several. First of all, written language has been shown to display a higher ratio of lexical items to total running words than spoken language, which is known as lexical density Halliday , A high lexical density is desirable in that it gives us access to a greater number of lexical items than if we used spoken language. Secondly, written language does not display as much inherent variability of forms as spoken language does Poplack and Dion and it leaves out some aspects that are difficult to analyze i.
In addition, studies that analyze speech samples can only look back to some 80 years of history whereas the study of written samples allows for a much higher retrospective outlook.
Equally importantly, writers tend to use the standard language unless it is to create a particular effect. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that when words appear in a book, they have been present in the speech for a relatively long amount of time; i. The last reason, but not less important, is practicality. Written texts are already transcribed and in this case, digitized , which makes them easier to be processed computationally.
CREA, in fact, has both an oral and a written Spanish corpus, the latter being much larger. But these corpora have something in common, in addition to being very well made and well selected: they are small. Because of their size, manual efforts of transcription and annotation have made sense. However, this study seeks to face a new challenge: using billions and billions of words to account for the introduction and diffusion of loanwords. Differently from other sociolinguistic and language contact studies, our investigation does not focus necessarily on the language production of a bilingual territory.
In most cases, authors were monolingual and lived in stable monolingual zones. Therefore, the fact the we see words borrowed from other languages is not necessarily the result of personal or societal bilingualism but of established borrowing processes.
Research Questions To remind the reader, in this study we seek to answer four main questions: What language donated more loanwords to Spanish? Methodology In order to collect a dataset as exhaustive and extensive as possible that would allow us to address our aforementioned questions, we resorted to two corpora made publicly available, the HathiTrust Digital Library henceforth: HT with its Spanish corpus of , texts Capitanu et al.
Each text in HT is represented as a compressed JSON file that includes metadata about the volume in which it was originally published, such as the year of publication or the author if known, and a list of pages. Each of these pages contains a frequency map for each of the individual tokens found in an automated part-of-speech POS tagging task of the text in the page. Order and structure are lost, and the original text cannot be reconstructed. Although this might represent a problem to other studies, it is not problematic to ours because word counts were the only requirement to address our questions.
Despite containing several times more tokens ,,, 1-grams, and 46, unique lemmas , the NGram dataset was smaller: around 10GB of clean tabulated data with calculated word counts per year.
Processing NGram was easier when compared to the HT format since the NGram dataset only contains isolated information about words some POS annotated , counts, and years and volume of apparition. An additional problem that the HT database posed was that it only allowed us to use texts up to the copyright start date, that is, volumes that were published in the US before or outside the US before Hence, and as we will see in the results sections, our only source for words in the last century comes from the NGram dataset.
Once the first word counts were calculated, we lemmatized them and ignored proper nouns and other constructions such as initials, numbers, or words with numbers. It is worth noting that the authors of the NGram dataset reported only 83,,, words in Spanish.
Identifying which lemmas were loanwords was possible thanks to the etymological information contained in the electronic edition of the DECH. We built a grammar to recognise the tree structure of the etymology statements. We classified the language tags that the DECH uses to define etymological origin in 10 categories in order to capture, in a group, a set of languages that would share a geographic and temporal relation with regards to the Spanish language.
The groups, with some of their more representative languages in terms of their contribution to the Spanish lexicon, are shown below. Note that we are not including all the source languages that the DECH specifies, but only those that served as donor languages directly to Spanish. Examples such as these two, by all means, should be counted as loanwords, and not as core Spanish. To be conservative, we counted these items as belonging to the baseline.
Therefore, we acknowledge that the number of loanwords from Latin is higher in reality but, unfortunately, this is a limitation of this otherwise highly specific and thorough dictionary.
English was left as its own group because of its unique relationship to Spanish. This language has influenced Spanish at different stages from different parts of the world. If English had been grouped together with other languages, the difference in loanword borrowing from British English and American English to Spanish might have been masked.
Results 4. Donor Languages Out of the 65, lemmas and definitions included in the DECH dictionary, 33, counted with etymology information we were able to extract. And although 19, were found to be loanwords, only 6, appeared in our corpora and came from languages other than Latin and Arabic, which again, were counted as baseline Spanish.
When looking at the donor languages for these lemmas, shown in Figure 1 , we found that Greek and French were the most prolific languages in donating lexical items to Spanish: 2, words come from Greek and 1, from French. Figure 1 Number of loanwords per donor language. The majority of the most prolific donor languages in Figure 1 are not surprising. After all, Spanish in all Spanish-speaking nations shares a geographic relation or a historical or political link with most of these languages.
One of the notable exceptions is Greek, which appears as the top donor to Spanish. The great number of Greek loanwords may be unexpected at first. Spain and Greece have not established direct relations through colonial expansion, wars, or trading in the past centuries other than the one described in Footnote 2. Upon careful observation of the Greek loanwords, we realize that the borrowing process for this language is unlike the one for the other languages.
Besides the great amount of words that originated in Greek and made their way through Spanish via the Vulgar Latin and the Arabic spoken in the Iberian Peninsula before the 20th century which, again, have not been counted as Greek loanwords in this study , we find a great amount of Ancient Greek loanwords in Spanish that were borrowed, unmediated, after the 18th century Fernandez Galiano In the 19th and 20th century, Ancient Greek, as the first internationally prestigious language in history Bergua Cavero , was often resorted to due to the need to keep up with the rapidly evolving fields of science and technology.
New inventions and discoveries, growing by leaps and bounds, required names. It is precisely because loanwords from Ancient Greek are specialized vocabulary that investigations that focus on casual speech or press corpora might overlook the fact that a great amount of Spanish words were loaned by this language. These type of words are simply not common in more casual types of texts but are nevertheless frequent in literature and specialized treaties such as the ones contained in the HathiTrust and Google Books Ngrams databases.
Even before the use of technology, Spanish philologists were well aware of the influence of French on the Spanish lexicon. English, occupying a seventh place in the donor list deserves a special mention. Two main reasons make the results for English only partially representative of the linguistic reality of Spanish nowadays.
First of all, as we mentioned, literature tends to be more conservative in terms of lexicon used. Therefore, English loanwords that are being used in Spanish casual speech may have still not made it into the literature. Loanwords such as selfie or online are increasingly common, but are not equally present in Spanish literature.
For these reasons, studies that investigate the use of loanwords which have not been incorporated to dictionaries in casual speech or in texts that describe current affairs find a greater presence of English loanwords Esteban Asencio ; Gerding et al. In other words, our methods have analyzed words that have been present in the language for a long time and have been conventionalized into Spanish.